Representatives of the music industry argued, in part, that file sharing occurring via Napster displaced the market for licensed music. Basically, they said that no one was buying CDs because they were downloading their music for free.
On a smaller scale, this is why even educators cannot scan an entire book and make it available to students online. Books earn money through sales, and giving them to students in their entirety would substantially decrease the market for that book and potentially inspire other instructors to do the same. This is all great in the abstract, but what does it mean for you and your work? Below are a few fair use scenarios you might find yourself in:. Showing a Film to Your Class : Several times over the course of being an instructor, I have used class time to show a movie, like Paths of Glory.
According to most film copyright licenses, this would qualify as a public performance of the film and would require me to get permission and pay before screening it. And, yes, it is problematic for my fair use claim to be showing the film in its entirety. However, this is where the educator exemption comes into play. Because the content of the films are directly related to the content of my course and my students are being evaluated on it i.
An Educational Primer For The Majority Student
Distributing PDF Documents to Your Students : Like I mentioned before, copyright law moves slower than technology, so sometimes it fails to take into account issues that new technology brings. The existence of PDFs is one example of this. Although most textbook publishers allow instructors to copy and distribute to their classes small sections think a chapter or less of their books under fair use, the same provision does not necessarily apply to creating PDFs and posting them online for students to access. If, for example, you posted the document on your public course website, then anyone could have access to it.
What you can do, however, is post the PDFs to a closed network, one which is exclusive to your students like Blackboard or another learning platform. I like the freedom of public websites for courses, but I always post copyrighted materials on the private learning platform. For instructors who do not have access to these private systems, you could create invite-only Google Docs or files on Dropbox to protect your fair use materials.
Sources in Your Dissertation : For a lot of students, their dissertation will live on only in a handful of copies at the library. Sources that you excerpt or images that you use in it will usually qualify as fair use, and you do not need to worry about getting official permissions. However, for an increasing number of us, dissertations go on to be published by our universities online somewhere. While this is great for getting our work out to other scholars, it also means we need to pay more attention to getting the official licenses to our sources.
Luckily most academic libraries, research institutions, and special collections offer fair use permissions for just such occasions. All you need to do is apply to the institution, being specific about how the materials are being used, and they confirm that your work adheres to fair use. Most US universities have very clear copyright information available alongside their guidelines for dissertation submission, so make sure your check those out.
Also, as a reminder, even if you were given permission to use something under fair use in your dissertation, that same license will no longer apply when you turn your research into a book or article. Those are just a few examples to give you a sense of the fair use exemption to copyright law.
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Although it is confusing, it is important to do your best to stay within the law. Not only does it set a good example for your students, but it could save you a lot of headaches in the future. Be the first to know. Get our free daily newsletter. Huge Budget Cut for the University of Alaska. Four university presidents depart institutions within days of one another. Democratic contenders draw contrasts on free college, student debt. College Board will add adversity score for everyone taking the SAT.
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Most of these parents have experienced decades of stagnating wages, and have only one asset, home equity. The housing meltdown has caused that resource either to disappear or to turn into a punishing debt load. The younger generation too appears to have mortgaged its future earnings in the form of student loan debt. For-profit school enrollment is growing faster than enrollment at public schools, and a growing percentage of students attending for-profit schools represent holders of debt likely to default. In order to get a better handle on the dynamics of student debt growth, it is helpful to sketch the connection between the current crisis in public education and the recent rapid growth of the for-profits.
This has resulted in enrollment gluts at many state colleges.
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At the same time, tuition is increasing just when household income and hence the affordability of higher education are declining. Often the imbalance created by a cut to the base budget and an increase in tuition is made worse by limits on enrollment. A state legislative body may cut an institution's budget, allow it to increase tuition, but not provide per-student funding increases to keep pace with the accelerating enrollment demand. This affects tuition rates at for-profit institutions.
More students who would otherwise attend a state institution or a private, non-profit school are finding themselves without a seat at over-enrolled campuses.
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More students are pushed into the online and for-profit sectors, and proprietary schools sieze the day by inflating their tuition costs. Because online colleges lack the enrollment constraints of a physical campus, they are uniquely poised to capture huge proportions of the growing higher education market by starting classes in non-traditional intervals the University of Phoenix, for example, begins its online classes on a 5-week rolling basis and without regard to space, charging ever-increasing rates to students who have no other choice. Instead of waiting for an admissions decision or a financial aid package from a traditional college, students can enroll immediately online.
This ease of use and accessibility to any student has allowed the for-profit sector to capture a growing portion of the higher education market and a growing proportion of education-targeted public money. Thus, the neoliberal assault on public education not only tends to push more students into private institutions, it also generates upward pressure on tuition costs. This results in growing pressure on enrollees at proprietary schools to take on student loan debt. The extraordinary growth of student debt paralleled the bubble years, from the beginnings of the dot. Are student loans as financially problematic as the junk mortgage securities still held by the biggest banks?
That depends on how those loans were rated and the ability of the borrower to repay. In the build-up to the housing crisis, the major ratings agencies used by the biggest banks gave high ratings to mortgage-backed securities that were in fact toxic.